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RCU
Suppose that you have an initially empty RCU-protected hash table with per-bucket-locked updates. Suppose that one thread concurrently inserts items A and B in that order (but into different buckets) while a second thread concurrently looks up item A then item B—and while yet a third thread concurrently looks up these two items in the opposite order. The code for these three threads might look something like the following:

 1 void t1(void)
 2 {
 3   spin_lock(chain(A));
 4   insert(A);
 5   spin_unlock(chain(A));
 6   spin_lock(chain(B));
 7   insert(B);
 8   spin_unlock(chain(B));
 9 }
10 
11 void t2(void)
12 {
13   rcu_read_lock();
14   l1 = lookup(A);
15   rcu_read_unlock();
16   rcu_read_lock();
17   l2 = lookup(B);
18   rcu_read_unlock();
19 }
20 
21 void t3(void)
22 {
23   rcu_read_lock();
24   l3 = lookup(B);
25   rcu_read_unlock();
26   rcu_read_lock();
27   l4 = lookup(A);
28   rcu_read_unlock();
29 }

Because there is absolutely nothing guaranteeing the order of t2()'s and t3's lookups, it is quite possible that we could end up with l1==1&&l2==0&&l3==1&&l4==0, which would mean that t2() and t3() disagree on the order of insertion. However, this outcome is excluded if we place a synchronize_rcu() between lines 5 and 6 above.

But how can synchronize_rcu() possibly exclude this outcome given that t2()'s and t3()'s lookups can still be reordered?

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