Use gitk to See What You Are DoingThe first trick is to be able to see what you are doing while you are doing it. This is nothing particularly obscure or new, and is in fact why screen editors are preferred over line-oriented editors (remember ed?). And gitk displays your commits and shows how they are connected, including any branching and merging. The current commit is evident (yellow rather than blue circle) as is the current branch, if any (branch name in bold font). As with screen editors, this display helps avoid inevitable errors stemming from you and git disagreeing on the state of the repository. Such disagreements were especially common when I was first learning git. Given that git always prevailed in these sorts of disagreements, I heartily recommend using gitk even when you are restricting yourself to the less advanced git commands.
Note that gitk opens a new window, which may not work in all environments. In such cases, the --graph --pretty=oneline arguments to the git log command will give you a static ASCII-art approximation of the gitk display. As such, this approach is similar to using a line-oriented editor, but printing out the local lines every so often. In other words, it is better than nothing, but not as good as might be hoped for.
Fortunately, one of my colleagues pointed me at tig, which provides a dynamic ASCII-art display of the selected commits. This is again not as good as gitk, but it is probably as good as it gets in a text-only environment.
These tools do have their limits, and other techniques are required if you are actively rearranging more than a few hundred commits. If you are in that situation, you should look into the workflows used by high-level maintainers or by the -stable maintainer, who commonly wrangle many hundreds or even thousands of commits. Extreme numbers of commits will of course require significant automation, and many large-scale maintainers do in fact support their workflows with elaborate scripting.
Doing advanced git work without being able to see what you are doing is about as much a recipe for success as chopping wood in the dark. So do yourself a favor and use tools that allow you to see what you are doing!
Make Sure You Can Get Back To Where You StartedA common git rebase horror story involves a mistake made while rebasing, but with the git garbage collector erasing the starting point, so that there is no going back. As the old saying goes, “to err is human”, so such stories are all too plausible. But it is dead simple to give this horror story a happy ending: Simply create a branch at your starting point before doing git rebase:
git branch starting-point git rebase -i --onto destination-commit base-commit rebase-branch # The rebased commits are broken, perhaps misresolved conflicts? git checkout starting-point # or maybe: git checkout -B rebase-branch starting-branch
Alternatively, if you are using git in a distributed environment, you can push all your changes to the master repository before trying the unfamiliar command. Then if things go wrong, you can simply destroy your copy, re-clone the repository, and start over.
Whichever approach you choose, the benefit of ensuring that you can return to your starting point is the ability to repeat the git rebase as many times as needed to arrive at the desired result. Sort of like playing a video game, when you think about it.
Practice on an Experimental RepositoryOn-the-job training can be a wonderful thing, but sometimes it is better to create an experimental repository for the sole purpose of practicing your git commands. But sometimes, you need a repository with lots of commits to provide a realistic environment for your practice session. In that case, it might be worthwhile to clone another copy of your working repository and do your practicing there. After all, you can always remove the repository after you have finished practicing.
And there are some commands that have such far-reaching effects that I always do a dry-run on a sacrificial repository before trying it in real life. The poster boy for such a command is git filter-branch, which has impressive power for both good and evil.
In summary, to use advanced git commands without adult supervision, first make sure that you can see what you are doing, then make sure that you can get back to where you started, and finally, practice makes perfect!